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Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch to stoke the fire of sth. Forumsdiskussionen, die den Suchbegriff enthalten stokes - das Stokes Letzter Beitrag: Beispiele, die schüre enthalten, ansehen 2 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen schüren. Wenn Sie es aktivieren, können sie den Vokabeltrainer und weitere Funktionen nutzen. Hier sehen Sie Ihre letzten Suchanfragen, die neueste zuerst. Coherent anti- Stokes Raman scattering [ Abk.: Das Feuer ist geschürt und die Lust nach mehr kann befriedigt werden. Stokes -line [ PHYS. From a song, how do… 4 Antworten etw. She's teaching in a primary at Stoke. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch to stoke a boiler. Stoke würden gemeinsame Geschäfte planen. Der Eintrag wurde Ihren Favoriten hinzugefügt. Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden unter "Vokabelliste" angezeigt. Two kids stabbed in Stoke Newington. Die Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren? Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch to stoke the fire of sth. Guttering cinders stoke their dying flames by snuffing out the lights of others. Bis du den Heizraum erreichst, wo sie das Feuer schüren. English He was employed as a team rector in Stoke -on-Trent for a number of years.

These four entities predict the extent of the stroke, the area of the brain that is affected, the underlying cause, and the prognosis.

There are two main types of hemorrhagic stroke: The above two main types of hemorrhagic stroke are also two different forms of intracranial hemorrhage , which is the accumulation of blood anywhere within the cranial vault ; but the other forms of intracranial hemorrhage, such as epidural hematoma bleeding between the skull and the dura mater , which is the thick outermost layer of the meninges that surround the brain and subdural hematoma bleeding in the subdural space , are not considered "hemorrhagic strokes".

Hemorrhagic strokes may occur on the background of alterations to the blood vessels in the brain, such as cerebral amyloid angiopathy , cerebral arteriovenous malformation and an intracranial aneurysm , which can cause intraparenchymal or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

In addition to neurological impairment, hemorrhagic strokes usually cause specific symptoms for instance, subarachnoid hemorrhage classically causes a severe headache known as a thunderclap headache or reveal evidence of a previous head injury.

Stroke symptoms typically start suddenly, over seconds to minutes, and in most cases do not progress further. The symptoms depend on the area of the brain affected.

The more extensive the area of the brain affected, the more functions that are likely to be lost. Some forms of stroke can cause additional symptoms.

For example, in intracranial hemorrhage, the affected area may compress other structures. Most forms of stroke are not associated with a headache , apart from subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral venous thrombosis and occasionally intracerebral hemorrhage.

Various systems have been proposed to increase recognition of stroke. Different findings are able to predict the presence or absence of stroke to different degrees.

Sudden-onset face weakness, arm drift i. Similarly, when all three of these are absent, the likelihood of stroke is decreased — likelihood ratio of 0.

For people referred to the emergency room , early recognition of stroke is deemed important as this can expedite diagnostic tests and treatments.

A scoring system called ROSIER recognition of stroke in the emergency room is recommended for this purpose; it is based on features from the medical history and physical examination.

If the area of the brain affected includes one of the three prominent central nervous system pathways —the spinothalamic tract , corticospinal tract , and the dorsal column—medial lemniscus pathway , symptoms may include:.

In most cases, the symptoms affect only one side of the body unilateral. Depending on the part of the brain affected, the defect in the brain is usually on the opposite side of the body.

However, since these pathways also travel in the spinal cord and any lesion there can also produce these symptoms, the presence of any one of these symptoms does not necessarily indicate a stroke.

In addition to the above CNS pathways, the brainstem gives rise to most of the twelve cranial nerves. A brainstem stroke affecting the brainstem and brain, therefore, can produce symptoms relating to deficits in these cranial nerves: If the cerebral cortex is involved, the CNS pathways can again be affected, but also can produce the following symptoms:.

If the cerebellum is involved, ataxia might be present and this includes:. Loss of consciousness , headache, and vomiting usually occur more often in hemorrhagic stroke than in thrombosis because of the increased intracranial pressure from the leaking blood compressing the brain.

If symptoms are maximal at onset, the cause is more likely to be a subarachnoid hemorrhage or an embolic stroke. In thrombotic stroke, a thrombus [37] blood clot usually forms around atherosclerotic plaques.

Since blockage of the artery is gradual, onset of symptomatic thrombotic strokes is slower than that of a hemorrhagic stroke. A thrombus itself even if it does not completely block the blood vessel can lead to an embolic stroke see below if the thrombus breaks off and travels in the bloodstream, at which point it is called an embolus.

Two types of thrombosis can cause stroke:. Sickle-cell anemia , which can cause blood cells to clump up and block blood vessels, can also lead to stroke.

A stroke is the second leading cause of death in people under 20 with sickle-cell anemia. An embolic stroke refers to an arterial embolism a blockage of an artery by an embolus , a traveling particle or debris in the arterial bloodstream originating from elsewhere.

An embolus is most frequently a thrombus, but it can also be a number of other substances including fat e.

Because an embolus arises from elsewhere, local therapy solves the problem only temporarily. Thus, the source of the embolus must be identified.

Because the embolic blockage is sudden in onset, symptoms usually are maximal at the start. Also, symptoms may be transient as the embolus is partially resorbed and moves to a different location or dissipates altogether.

Emboli most commonly arise from the heart especially in atrial fibrillation but may originate from elsewhere in the arterial tree.

In paradoxical embolism , a deep vein thrombosis embolizes through an atrial or ventricular septal defect in the heart into the brain. Causes of stroke related to the heart can be distinguished between high and low-risk: Among those who have a complete blockage of one of the carotid arteries, the risk of stroke on that side is about one percent per year.

A special form of embolic stroke is the embolic stroke of undetermined source ESUS. This subset of cryptogenetic stroke is defined as a non-lacunar brain infarct without proximal arterial stenosis or cardioembolic sources.

About one out of six ischemic strokes could be classified as ESUS. Cerebral hypoperfusion is the reduction of blood flow to all parts of the brain.

The reduction could be to a particular part of the brain depending on the cause. It is most commonly due to heart failure from cardiac arrest or arrhythmias, or from reduced cardiac output as a result of myocardial infarction , pulmonary embolism , pericardial effusion , or bleeding.

Because the reduction in blood flow is global, all parts of the brain may be affected, especially vulnerable "watershed" areas—border zone regions supplied by the major cerebral arteries.

A watershed stroke refers to the condition when the blood supply to these areas is compromised. Blood flow to these areas does not necessarily stop, but instead it may lessen to the point where brain damage can occur.

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis leads to stroke due to locally increased venous pressure, which exceeds the pressure generated by the arteries.

Infarcts are more likely to undergo hemorrhagic transformation leaking of blood into the damaged area than other types of ischemic stroke.

It generally occurs in small arteries or arterioles and is commonly due to hypertension, [47] intracranial vascular malformations including cavernous angiomas or arteriovenous malformations , cerebral amyloid angiopathy , or infarcts into which secondary hemorrhage has occurred.

The hematoma enlarges until pressure from surrounding tissue limits its growth, or until it decompresses by emptying into the ventricular system , CSF or the pial surface.

ICH has a mortality rate of 44 percent after 30 days, higher than ischemic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage which technically may also be classified as a type of stroke [2].

Other causes may include spasm of an artery. This may occur due to cocaine. A silent stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms, and the patients are typically unaware they have had a stroke.

Despite not causing identifiable symptoms, a silent stroke still damages the brain, and places the patient at increased risk for both transient ischemic attack and major stroke in the future.

Conversely, those who have had a major stroke are also at risk of having silent strokes. Approximately , of these strokes were symptomatic and 11 million were first-ever silent MRI infarcts or hemorrhages.

Silent strokes typically cause lesions which are detected via the use of neuroimaging such as MRI. Silent strokes are estimated to occur at five times the rate of symptomatic strokes.

Ischemic stroke occurs because of a loss of blood supply to part of the brain, initiating the ischemic cascade. This is why fibrinolytics such as alteplase are given only until three hours since the onset of the stroke.

Atherosclerosis may disrupt the blood supply by narrowing the lumen of blood vessels leading to a reduction of blood flow, by causing the formation of blood clots within the vessel, or by releasing showers of small emboli through the disintegration of atherosclerotic plaques.

Since blood vessels in the brain are now blocked, the brain becomes low in energy, and thus it resorts to using anaerobic metabolism within the region of brain tissue affected by ischemia.

Anaerobic metabolism produces less adenosine triphosphate ATP but releases a by-product called lactic acid. Lactic acid is an irritant which could potentially destroy cells since it is an acid and disrupts the normal acid-base balance in the brain.

The ischemia area is referred to as the "ischemic penumbra ". As oxygen or glucose becomes depleted in ischemic brain tissue, the production of high energy phosphate compounds such as adenosine triphosphate ATP fails, leading to failure of energy-dependent processes such as ion pumping necessary for tissue cell survival.

This sets off a series of interrelated events that result in cellular injury and death. A major cause of neuronal injury is the release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.

However, stroke cuts off the supply of oxygen and glucose which powers the ion pumps maintaining these gradients. As a result, the transmembrane ion gradients run down, and glutamate transporters reverse their direction, releasing glutamate into the extracellular space.

Calcium influx can also lead to the failure of mitochondria , which can lead further toward energy depletion and may trigger cell death due to programmed cell death.

Ischemia also induces production of oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species. These react with and damage a number of cellular and extracellular elements.

Damage to the blood vessel lining or endothelium is particularly important. In fact, many antioxidant neuroprotectants such as uric acid and NXY work at the level of the endothelium and not in the brain per se.

Free radicals also directly initiate elements of the programmed cell death cascade by means of redox signaling.

These processes are the same for any type of ischemic tissue and are referred to collectively as the ischemic cascade. However, brain tissue is especially vulnerable to ischemia since it has little respiratory reserve and is completely dependent on aerobic metabolism , unlike most other organs.

In addition to damaging effects on brain cells, ischemia and infarction can result in loss of structural integrity of brain tissue and blood vessels, partly through the release of matrix metalloproteases, which are zinc- and calcium-dependent enzymes that break down collagen, hyaluronic acid , and other elements of connective tissue.

Other proteases also contribute to this process. The loss of vascular structural integrity results in a breakdown of the protective blood brain barrier that contributes to cerebral edema , which can cause secondary progression of the brain injury.

Hemorrhagic strokes are classified based on their underlying pathology. Some causes of hemorrhagic stroke are hypertensive hemorrhage , ruptured aneurysm , ruptured AV fistula , transformation of prior ischemic infarction, and drug induced bleeding.

In addition, the pressure may lead to a loss of blood supply to affected tissue with resulting infarction , and the blood released by brain hemorrhage appears to have direct toxic effects on brain tissue and vasculature.

Stroke is diagnosed through several techniques: The diagnosis of stroke itself is clinical, with assistance from the imaging techniques. Imaging techniques also assist in determining the subtypes and cause of stroke.

There is yet no commonly used blood test for the stroke diagnosis itself, though blood tests may be of help in finding out the likely cause of stroke.

A physical examination , including taking a medical history of the symptoms and a neurological status, helps giving an evaluation of the location and severity of a stroke.

It can give a standard score on e. For diagnosing ischemic blockage stroke in the emergency setting: For detecting chronic hemorrhages, MRI scan is more sensitive.

CT scans may not detect an ischemic stroke, especially if it is small, of recent onset, or in the brainstem or cerebellum areas. A CT scan is more to rule out certain stroke mimics and detect bleeding.

When a stroke has been diagnosed, various other studies may be performed to determine the underlying cause. With the current treatment and diagnosis options available, it is of particular importance to determine whether there is a peripheral source of emboli.

Test selection may vary since the cause of stroke varies with age, comorbidity and the clinical presentation. The following are commonly used techniques:.

For hemorrhagic strokes, a CT or MRI scan with intravascular contrast may be able to identify abnormalities in the brain arteries such as aneurysms or other sources of bleeding, and structural MRI if this shows no cause.

If this too does not identify an underlying reason for the bleeding, invasive cerebral angiography could be performed but this requires access to the bloodstream with an intravascular catheter and can cause further strokes as well as complications at the insertion site and this investigation is therefore reserved for specific situations.

People not having a stroke may also be misdiagnosed as a stroke. This unnecessary treatment adds to health care costs. Women, African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders are more often misdiagnosed for a condition other than stroke when in fact having a stroke.

In addition, adults under 44 years-of-age are seven times more likely to have a stroke missed than are adults over 75 years-of-age.

This is especially the case for younger people with posterior circulation infarcts. And in some of these persons, strokes have been found which were then treated with thrombolytic medication.

Given the disease burden of strokes, prevention is an important public health concern. The most important modifiable risk factors for stroke are high blood pressure and atrial fibrillation although the size of the effect is small with people have to be treated for 1 year to prevent one stroke.

High cholesterol levels have been inconsistently associated with ischemic stroke. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of stroke by 2 to 3 times.

While intensive blood sugar control has been shown to reduce small blood vessel complications such as kidney damage and damage to the retina of the eye it has not been shown to reduce large blood vessel complications such as stroke.

Oral anticoagulants such as warfarin have been the mainstay of stroke prevention for over 50 years. However, several studies have shown that aspirin and other antiplatelets are highly effective in secondary prevention after a stroke or transient ischemic attack.

To incite or intensify negative emotions or reactions to something. The candidate has been stoking up controversy throughout the campaign, discrediting and slandering his opponents with outrageous and unprovable claims.

The police chief stoked the fury of the protestors up when he announced that the officers involved in the shooting would not be forced to resign.

To start and warm up some piece of machinery, especially a car motor or engine, in preparation for its use. The official gave the signal and the drivers stoked up their engines.

Grandpa had to go down each winter morning to stoke the fire up. He stoked up the furnace every morning during the winter. To feed or stir some fire or furnace: Lee had to go down to the basement several times to stoke up the furnace.

Retrieved 13 May Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 8 April Retrieved 29 June Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 12 July Archived from the original on 1 October Archived from the original on 18 February International Footballer Hall of Fame.

Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 8 November Archived from the original on 7 August Archived from the original on 17 July Retrieved 1 July Archived from the original on 30 July Retrieved 3 March Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 12 June Archived from the original on 8 May Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 6 September Retrieved 24 October Retrieved 18 May Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 14 March Retrieved 14 May Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved 22 May Stoke City appoint former QPR manager".

Retrieved 30 May Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 19 July Retrieved 1 June Stoke City sack manager after poor run".

Retrieved 5 May Retrieved 30 October Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 29 February Archived from the original on 31 May Retrieved 3 January Retrieved 1 April Retrieved 7 February Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 25 October Archived from the original on 12 January Retrieved 31 January Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 25 May When will the ugly truth finally dawn on Baggies?

Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 30 June Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 25 January Archived from the original on 14 January Retrieved 20 February Stoke City sign Giannelli Imbula from Porto".

Retrieved 1 February Retrieved 29 July Retrieved 24 May

English stodgy stoep com com stoical stoically stoichiometric stoichiometry stoicism stoicly stoics to stoke stoked stokehold stokehole stoker stoker-fired furnace stokers stokes stoking stoking hole stole Mehr Wetter dass im Deutsch- Englisch Wörterbuch. Verfassen von Artikeln in der Psychologie Letzter Beitrag: Bis du den Heizraum erreichst, wo sie das Feuer schüren. Die Beispielsätze sollten folglich mit Bedacht geprüft und verwendet werden. Um eine neue Diskussion zu starten, müssen Sie angemeldet sein. Der Eintrag wurde im Forum gespeichert. From a song, how do… 4 Antworten etw. I mean, I hate to stoke the fires, but Coherent anti- Stokes Raman scattering [ Abk.: Sobald sie in freispiele ohne einzahlung Vokabeltrainer übernommen wurden, sind sie auch auf anderen Geräten verfügbar. Mehr Übersetzungen im Deutsch- Englisch Wörterbuch. Hand hören, dass Stoke beachvolleyball news Mann ist, und ein paar Hämmer für Seite 1 haben. Archived from the original on May 11, Ashley Williams on loan from Everton. Blood flow to these areas wette karlsruhe not necessarily stop, but instead it may lessen to the point where brain damage can occur. The above two main types of hemorrhagic stroke are also two online casino l forms of intracranial hemorrhagewhich is the accumulation of blood anywhere within the cranial vault ; but the other forms of intracranial hemorrhage, such as epidural hematoma bleeding between the skull and the dura materwhich is the thick outermost layer of the meninges that surround the brain and subdural hematoma blackjack strategy for casino in the subdural spaceare not considered "hemorrhagic strokes". There are four reasons why this might happen:. Archived from the original on 27 February The Internet Stroke München poker casino. Sickle-cell anemiawhich can cause blood cells to clump up and block blood vessels, can also lead to stroke. Medical condition where poor blood flow to the brain causes cell death. Incidence and Day Case-Fatality Rate".

It can give a standard score on e. For diagnosing ischemic blockage stroke in the emergency setting: For detecting chronic hemorrhages, MRI scan is more sensitive.

CT scans may not detect an ischemic stroke, especially if it is small, of recent onset, or in the brainstem or cerebellum areas. A CT scan is more to rule out certain stroke mimics and detect bleeding.

When a stroke has been diagnosed, various other studies may be performed to determine the underlying cause. With the current treatment and diagnosis options available, it is of particular importance to determine whether there is a peripheral source of emboli.

Test selection may vary since the cause of stroke varies with age, comorbidity and the clinical presentation.

The following are commonly used techniques:. For hemorrhagic strokes, a CT or MRI scan with intravascular contrast may be able to identify abnormalities in the brain arteries such as aneurysms or other sources of bleeding, and structural MRI if this shows no cause.

If this too does not identify an underlying reason for the bleeding, invasive cerebral angiography could be performed but this requires access to the bloodstream with an intravascular catheter and can cause further strokes as well as complications at the insertion site and this investigation is therefore reserved for specific situations.

People not having a stroke may also be misdiagnosed as a stroke. This unnecessary treatment adds to health care costs.

Women, African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders are more often misdiagnosed for a condition other than stroke when in fact having a stroke.

In addition, adults under 44 years-of-age are seven times more likely to have a stroke missed than are adults over 75 years-of-age.

This is especially the case for younger people with posterior circulation infarcts. And in some of these persons, strokes have been found which were then treated with thrombolytic medication.

Given the disease burden of strokes, prevention is an important public health concern. The most important modifiable risk factors for stroke are high blood pressure and atrial fibrillation although the size of the effect is small with people have to be treated for 1 year to prevent one stroke.

High cholesterol levels have been inconsistently associated with ischemic stroke. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of stroke by 2 to 3 times. While intensive blood sugar control has been shown to reduce small blood vessel complications such as kidney damage and damage to the retina of the eye it has not been shown to reduce large blood vessel complications such as stroke.

Oral anticoagulants such as warfarin have been the mainstay of stroke prevention for over 50 years. However, several studies have shown that aspirin and other antiplatelets are highly effective in secondary prevention after a stroke or transient ischemic attack.

In primary prevention however, antiplatelet drugs did not reduce the risk of ischemic stroke but increased the risk of major bleeding.

Carotid endarterectomy or carotid angioplasty can be used to remove atherosclerotic narrowing of the carotid artery.

There is evidence supporting this procedure in selected cases. The number of procedures needed to cure one patient was 5 for early surgery within two weeks after the initial stroke , but if delayed longer than 12 weeks.

Screening for carotid artery narrowing has not been shown to be a useful test in the general population.

Even then, for surgeries, 5 patients will benefit by avoiding stroke, 3 will develop stroke despite surgery, 3 will develop stroke or die due to the surgery itself, and 89 will remain stroke-free but would also have done so without intervention.

Nutrition, specifically the Mediterranean-style diet , has the potential for decreasing the risk of having a stroke by more than half. In those who have previously had preeclampsia other risk factors should be treated more aggressively.

The most widely used anticoagulant to prevent thromboembolic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is the oral agent warfarin while a number of newer agents including dabigatran are alternatives which do not require prothrombin time monitoring.

Anticoagulants, when used following stroke, should not be stopped for dental procedures. If studies show carotid artery stenosis, and the person has a degree of residual function on the affected side, carotid endarterectomy surgical removal of the stenosis may decrease the risk of recurrence if performed rapidly after stroke.

The philosophical premise underlying the importance of rapid stroke intervention was summed up as Time is Brain! Tight blood sugar control in the first few hours does not improve outcomes and may cause harm.

Its use is endorsed by the American Heart Association and the American Academy of Neurology as the recommended treatment for acute stroke within three hours of onset of symptoms as long as there are no other contraindications such as abnormal lab values, high blood pressure, or recent surgery.

This position for tPA is based upon the findings of two studies by one group of investigators [] which showed that tPA improves the chances for a good neurological outcome.

When administered within the first three hours thrombolysis improves functional outcome without affecting mortality. Mechanical removal of the blood clot causing the ischemic stroke, called mechanical thrombectomy , is a potential treatment for occlusion of a large artery, such as the middle cerebral artery.

In , one review demonstrated the safety and efficacy of this procedure if performed within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms. Strokes affecting large portions of the brain can cause significant brain swelling with secondary brain injury in surrounding tissue.

This phenomenon is mainly encountered in strokes affecting brain tissue dependent upon the middle cerebral artery for blood supply and is also called "malignant cerebral infarction" because it carries a dismal prognosis.

Relief of the pressure may be attempted with medication, but some require hemicraniectomy , the temporary surgical removal of the skull on one side of the head.

This decreases the risk of death, although some people — who would otherwise have died — survive with disability. People with intracerebral hemorrhage require supportive care, including blood pressure control if required.

People are monitored for changes in the level of consciousness, and their blood sugar and oxygenation are kept at optimum levels.

Anticoagulants and antithrombotics can make bleeding worse and are generally discontinued and reversed if possible. In subarachnoid hemorrhage , early treatment for underlying cerebral aneurysms may reduce the risk of further hemorrhages.

Depending on the site of the aneurysm this may be by surgery that involves opening the skull or endovascularly through the blood vessels.

Ideally, people who have had a stroke are admitted to a "stroke unit", a ward or dedicated area in a hospital staffed by nurses and therapists with experience in stroke treatment.

It has been shown that people admitted to a stroke unit have a higher chance of surviving than those admitted elsewhere in hospital, even if they are being cared for by doctors without experience in stroke.

Stroke rehabilitation is the process by which those with disabling strokes undergo treatment to help them return to normal life as much as possible by regaining and relearning the skills of everyday living.

It also aims to help the survivor understand and adapt to difficulties, prevent secondary complications and educate family members to play a supporting role.

A rehabilitation team is usually multidisciplinary as it involves staff with different skills working together to help the patient.

These include physicians trained in rehabilitation medicine, clinical pharmacists , nursing staff, physiotherapists , occupational therapists , speech and language therapists , and orthotists.

Some teams may also include psychologists and social workers , since at least one-third of affected people manifests post stroke depression.

Validated instruments such as the Barthel scale may be used to assess the likelihood of a stroke patient being able to manage at home with or without support subsequent to discharge from a hospital.

Good nursing care is fundamental in maintaining skin care , feeding, hydration, positioning, and monitoring vital signs such as temperature, pulse, and blood pressure.

Stroke rehabilitation begins almost immediately. For most people with stroke, physical therapy PT , occupational therapy OT and speech-language pathology SLP are the cornerstones of the rehabilitation process.

Often, assistive technology such as wheelchairs , walkers and canes may be beneficial. Many mobility problems can be improved by the use of ankle foot orthoses.

Physiotherapists can also work with patients to improve awareness and use of the hemiplegic side. Rehabilitation involves working on the ability to produce strong movements or the ability to perform tasks using normal patterns.

One example physiotherapists employ to promote motor learning involves constraint-induced movement therapy. Through continuous practice the patient relearns to use and adapt the hemiplegic limb during functional activities to create lasting permanent changes.

Speech and language therapy is appropriate for people with the speech production disorders: Patients may have particular problems, such as dysphagia , which can cause swallowed material to pass into the lungs and cause aspiration pneumonia.

The condition may improve with time, but in the interim, a nasogastric tube may be inserted, enabling liquid food to be given directly into the stomach.

If swallowing is still deemed unsafe, then a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy PEG tube is passed and this can remain indefinitely.

Treatment of spasticity related to stroke often involves early mobilizations, commonly performed by a physiotherapist, combined with elongation of spastic muscles and sustained stretching through various positionings.

Stroke rehabilitation should be started as quickly as possible and can last anywhere from a few days to over a year.

Most return of function is seen in the first few months, and then improvement falls off with the "window" considered officially by U.

However, patients have been known to continue to improve for years, regaining and strengthening abilities like writing, walking, running, and talking.

Complete recovery is unusual but not impossible and most patients will improve to some extent: Some current and future therapy methods include the use of virtual reality and video games for rehabilitation.

These forms of rehabilitation offer potential for motivating patients to perform specific therapy tasks that many other forms do not.

The effect of physical training on cognition also may be studied further. The ability to walk independently in their community, indoors or outdoors, is important following stroke.

Although no negative effects have been reported, it is unclear if outcomes can improve with these walking programs when compared to usual treatment.

A stroke can affect the ability to live independently and with quality. Self-management programs are a special training that educates stroke survivors about stroke and its consequences, helps them acquire skills to cope with their challenges, and helps them set and meet their own goals during their recovery process.

These programs are tailored to the target audience, and led by someone trained and expert in stroke and its consequences most commonly professionals, but also stroke survivors and peers.

A review reported that these programs improve the quality of life after stroke, without negative effects. People with stroke felt more empowered, happy and satisfied with life after participating in this training.

The results of stroke vary widely depending on size and location of the lesion. Some of the physical disabilities that can result from stroke include muscle weakness, numbness, pressure sores , pneumonia , incontinence , apraxia inability to perform learned movements , difficulties carrying out daily activities , appetite loss, speech loss , vision loss and pain.

If the stroke is severe enough, or in a certain location such as parts of the brainstem, coma or death can result. Emotional problems following a stroke can be due to direct damage to emotional centers in the brain or from frustration and difficulty adapting to new limitations.

Post-stroke emotional difficulties include anxiety , panic attacks , flat affect failure to express emotions , mania , apathy and psychosis. Other difficulties may include a decreased ability to communicate emotions through facial expression, body language and voice.

Disruption in self-identity, relationships with others, and emotional well-being can lead to social consequences after stroke due to the lack of ability to communicate.

Many people who experience communication impairments after a stroke find it more difficult to cope with the social issues rather than physical impairments.

Broader aspects of care must address the emotional impact speech impairment has on those who experience difficulties with speech after a stroke.

Psychotherapy sessions may have a small effect on improving mood and preventing depression after a stroke, [] however psychotherapy does not appear to be effective at treating depression after a stroke.

Emotional lability , another consequence of stroke, causes the person to switch quickly between emotional highs and lows and to express emotions inappropriately, for instance with an excess of laughing or crying with little or no provocation.

Those with a right hemisphere stroke are more likely to have an empathy problems which can make communication harder. Cognitive deficits resulting from stroke include perceptual disorders, aphasia , [] dementia , [] [] and problems with attention [] and memory.

In a condition called hemispatial neglect , the affected person is unable to attend to anything on the side of space opposite to the damaged hemisphere.

Cognitive and psychological outcome after a stroke can be affected by the age at which the stroke happened, pre-stroke baseline intellectual functioning, psychiatric history and whether there is pre-existing brain pathology.

Stroke was the second most frequent cause of death worldwide in , accounting for 6. It is ranked after heart disease and before cancer.

The risk of stroke increases exponentially from 30 years of age, and the cause varies by age. However, stroke can occur at any age, including in childhood.

Family members may have a genetic tendency for stroke or share a lifestyle that contributes to stroke. Higher levels of Von Willebrand factor are more common amongst people who have had ischemic stroke for the first time.

Primary among these are pregnancy, childbirth, menopause , and the treatment thereof HRT. Episodes of stroke and familial stroke have been reported from the 2nd millennium BC onward in ancient Mesopotamia and Persia.

Apoplexy , from the Greek word meaning "struck down with violence", first appeared in Hippocratic writings to describe this phenomenon.

In , in his Apoplexia , Johann Jacob Wepfer — identified the cause of hemorrhagic stroke when he suggested that people who had died of apoplexy had bleeding in their brains.

The term cerebrovascular accident was introduced in , reflecting a "growing awareness and acceptance of vascular theories and The term brain attack was introduced for use to underline the acute nature of stroke according to the American Stroke Association , [] who since have used the term, [] and is used colloquially to refer to both ischemic as well as hemorrhagic stroke.

Angioplasty and stenting have begun to be looked at as possible viable options in treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The rates of restenosis and stroke following the treatment were also favorable.

This data suggests that a randomized controlled trial is needed to more completely evaluate the possible therapeutic advantage of this preventative measure.

Neuroprotective agents including antioxidants which combat reactive oxygen species , or inhibit programmed cell death , or inhibit excitatory neurotransmitters have been shown experimentally to reduce tissue injury caused by ischemia.

Until recently, human clinical trials with neuroprotective agents have failed, with the probable exception of deep barbiturate-induced coma.

Disufenton sodium , the disulfonyl derivative of the radical-scavenging phenylbutylnitrone, was reported to be neuroprotective.

However the favourable results evidenced from one large-scale trial were not reproduced in a second trial.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been studied as a possible protective measure, but as of , while the benefits of this have not been ruled out, further research is said to be needed.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Stroke disambiguation. Medical condition where poor blood flow to the brain causes cell death.

Cerebral infarction and Brain ischemia. Intracerebral hemorrhage and Subarachnoid hemorrhage. Micrograph showing cortical pseudolaminar necrosis , a finding seen in strokes on medical imaging and at autopsy.

Micrograph of the superficial cerebral cortex showing neuron loss and reactive astrocytes in a person that has had a stroke.

Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 27 February Retrieved 27 February Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 26 February Archived from the original on 19 March National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

Cerebrovascular Disorders Offset Publications. The New England Journal of Medicine. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

Later publications distinguish between "syndrome" and "infarct", based on evidence from imaging. See Internet Stroke Center.

Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. Trial of Org in Acute Stroke Treatment". Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 24 August Archived from the original on 27 June Retrieved 30 June Centers of Disease Control and Prevention.

Annals of Emergency Medicine. National Library of Medicine. The Internet Stroke Center. National Institutes of Health. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis".

A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. A Systematic Review and Clinical Update". Handbook of Cerebrovascular Disease and Neurointerventional Technique.

An overview with emphasis on therapeutic significance beyond thrombolysis". Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis.

Antiplatelets and anticoagulants in stroke prevention A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis for the U. Preventive Services Task Force".

Annals of Internal Medicine. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved January 22, Explicit use of et al.

Archives of General Psychiatry. World J Cardiol Review. European Journal of Radiology. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4: Preventive Services Task Force Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement".

Chambers, Brian R, ed. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4: Wright, James M, ed. Meta-analysis of 8 randomized trials involving 37 individuals". Archives of Internal Medicine.

Stoke finished the season with only 17 points, with just three wins all season. Mick Mills was appointed player-manager for the —86 season , [24] but was unable to sustain a challenge for promotion in his four seasons as manager and was sacked in November His successor, Alan Ball, Jr.

He clinched silverware for the club; the Football League Trophy was won with a 1—0 victory against Stockport County at Wembley, with Mark Stein scoring the only goal of the match.

The following season, —93 , promotion was achieved from the third tier. Stoke finished fourth in —96 but were defeated in the play-off semi-final by Leicester City.

Macari left the club at the end of the season. His last match in charge was the final league game at the Victoria Ground.

He did not last long though, and was replaced by Chris Kamara in January Despite his best efforts, Durban was unable to keep the club up, as defeat against Manchester City on the final day of the season consigned Stoke to relegation to the third tier.

Brian Little , formerly manager of Aston Villa , [28] took charge for the —99 season. His successor, Gary Megson , was only in the job for four months.

Thordarson achieved promotion at the third time of asking in —02 after previous play-off defeats against Gillingham and Walsall. Stoke won automatic promotion to the Premier League on the final day of the —08 season , finishing in second place in the Championship.

Stoke also made it to the quarter-finals of the FA Cup for the first time since , defeating York City , Arsenal and Manchester City before losing out to eventual winners Chelsea.

In the Premier League, Stoke made the high-profile signing of Peter Crouch as they finished in a mid-table position for a fourth time.

The —13 season saw Stoke make little progress, and Pulis left the club by mutual consent on 21 May Pulis was replaced by fellow Welshman Mark Hughes , who signed a three-year contract on 30 May Their first pitch was certainly in the site of a present burial ground in Lonsdale Street, although there is evidence that they also played on land near to the Copeland Arms public house on Campbell Road.

The first match to be played at the Victoria Ground was a friendly against Talke Rangers on 28 March ; Stoke won 1—0 in front of 2, fans.

Major development work began in the s, and by the ground had lost its original shape. A record crowd of 51, packed into the Ground on 29 March to watch a league match against Arsenal.

Floodlights were installed in and another new main stand was built. By , Stoke drew up plans to make the ground an all seater stadium, to comply with the Taylor Report.

However, the club decided it would be better to leave the Victoria Ground and re-locate to a new site. Stoke struggled at first to adjust to their new surroundings and were relegated to the third tier in the first season at the new ground.

In , a record 28, attended an FA Cup match against Everton. With Stoke gaining promotion to the Premier League in , attendances increased. However, the capacity was reduced to 27, due to segregation.

While much of the support that the club enjoys is from the local Stoke-on-Trent area, there are a number of exile fan clubs, notably in London and stretching from Scandinavia to countries further afield such as Russia, the United States and Australia.

In response to these criticisms, the club introduced an Away Travel ID scheme. In November , a group of Stoke fans were forced by the Greater Manchester Police to leave Manchester before a league match against Manchester United.

It was adopted by the fans after a supporter was heard singing it in a local pub. As the two clubs have regularly been in different divisions, there have only been 46 league matches between the two sides, with the last match being in Stoke have won 19 matches while Vale have won So between and Stoke used a variety of kits with plain maroon being the most common.

Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

For details of former players, see List of Stoke City F. For player records, including player awards, see List of Stoke City F. Southern League Division Two.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History of Stoke City F. List of Stoke City F. Victoria Ground and bet Stadium.

The Oatcake , Naughty Forty , and Potteries derby. Player of the Year. Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 6 May Retrieved 13 August Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 11 May This is just one of the ways in which the Club will be marking this landmark in their history as the second oldest Football League club and the oldest in the Premier League.

Stoke City Official Website. Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 13 May Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 8 April Retrieved 29 June Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 12 July Archived from the original on 1 October Archived from the original on 18 February International Footballer Hall of Fame.

Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 8 November Archived from the original on 7 August Archived from the original on 17 July Retrieved 1 July Archived from the original on 30 July Retrieved 3 March Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 12 June Archived from the original on 8 May Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 6 September Retrieved 24 October Retrieved 18 May Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 14 March Retrieved 14 May Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved 22 May Stoke City appoint former QPR manager".

Retrieved 30 May Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 19 July Retrieved 1 June Stoke City sack manager after poor run".

Retrieved 5 May

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